One method, that I have come across in the recent months is to simply use the word descriptions fo the function. You can find the chapter of the book, where I had found it here. It was an effort by Bebee to simplify the definition of the Jungian personality function, so they are much more easier to explain to the other person. Here are the description below:
So, the function goes from the persona level, through the ego and ends up with the self, which is the ultimate goal of each function. I can see thing in my own functions. For example, my Ti would a lot of time try to make sure that there are right words for each of the concepts that I am using. It is a part that I worry about when I interact with other people, as I want to make sure the right words are used and mistakes really bother me. When I am not sure about the naming of something, that I try to define it for myself. But the ultimate goal is to be able to understand the certain phenomena or situation. And while a lot of times this process is verbal, it is not always.
My Ne would also be a good example, but I would rather give an example of a Ne use from an ENFP that I know. When she hears a new idea, for example for a new business, she entertains the though, she then envisions how it will look like that then quickly jumps to enabling. My process is a lot slower, as I need a lot more time to jump from one to another. But we both go through these phases.
How to account for the other function, since I am not that strong in the them, but I can imagine that the same principle apply to them. It starts with the first step and then continues to the last one. I would be interested in actually confirming this with the phenomenological research, but I am not sure I would be able to find enough people to participate, since I would need at least 2-3 for each function.
So for now, it is only something interesting that helps me quickly decide the person's type. Which still makes it quite useful.