The next method that I am using is one based on the typing tutorial from the little bit of personality website. I can actually recommend this article if you need a quick system to type people. Their method can be boiled down to 4 questions, and when you answer these 4 questions, you have a type that you can use to try and predict and accommodate a different person. I mostly use it to check on the end of the typing whenever I was right in my type.
1. E/I: Does a person reacts to inside insights (I) or outside information (E)?
Here the question is if the person that you are typing prefers to turn inside in order to get ideas, or do they look for the ideas outside? A person that would go inside first, would ponder each action. When getting the new information, they would pause and only then they would make their decision. They would think about the reaction and because of that, they can sometimes seem like they need a moment between the stimulus and the response.
On the other hand, the extroverts would see the outside world and they react. They get motivated by what is happening in the outside world and they react to the outside stimulus. Because of that, when they get a new infomration, they can immediately react and change their course of actions. They look at the world and get their information based on the outside world.
The examples of people that would be introverts by this method would be: John Watson from BBC Sherlock, Bruce Banner from Avengers, Loki from Avengers, Mouri Ran from Detective Conan, Shiro from No Game No Life, James Wilson from House MD and Arsene Lupin from Arsene Lupin's books. The example of extroverts would be Lelouch Lamperuge from Code Geass, Tony Stark from Avengers, Sora from No Game No Life, Hattori Heiji from Detective Conan, Penny from The Big Bang Theory and Ron Wesley from Harry Potter books.
2. N/S: Does a person uses experience to explain the concepts (S) or use the concepts to explain to experience (N)?
Here the question is, which of the two: concepts and experience, is a person using first and which is a person using to explain the other. So people with S in their type would gain their insights and concepts from their experience. They would see the situation and they would this situation to explain something more general. People with N in their type do these things in reverse. They would start with the concepts, and then they would use these concepts to try and explain a different situation. One other way to think about it is that sensors go from unit to the general rule, and the intuitive go from the general rule to the unit.
A good way to see this difference is in the series House MD. House there is a person that goes from the experience to the concept. His diagnosis goes from specific symptoms to the more general insights. Also, he became the doctor, even though he hates people, because he once saw a person that everybody listened to, because he was right. Even Wilson, at the funeral of his father, says that House's disregard for the punctuality most likely stems from his father's strict punctuality.
On the other hand, Wilson goes from concept to the specific situation. When he wants House to admit to his addiction, he engineers the situation that causes him to admit it. Even when Amber died, he did not leave House because Amber died, but because he realized that him enabling House lead to this situation. Even his advice to people is usually worded a lot more like an applied concept than something specific that arose from that situation.
The other examples of people that have S in their type are: Kururugi Suzaku from Code Geass, Peggy Carter from Agent Carter, Stephany Dola from No Game No Life, Robert Chase from House MD, and Misa Ayame from Death Note. The other examples for people with N in their code are: Charles vi Britania from Code Geass, Yagami Light from Death Note, Leonard McCoy from Star Trek (2009 version), Harry Potter from Harry Potter books, and Moriarty from BBC Sherlock.
3. T/F: Does the person first sees the use (T) or a meaning (F) of something?
Here the question is between the use and the meaning, which the person is using first and which is derived from the other. People with F in their type first see the meaning of things, people and concepts that they experience or know. It is only from that meaning, that they can derive usefulness. It is useful to have a strong meaning. People with T in their type are the opposite, they first see the use of everything and it is only from that use that they can derive meaning. It is meaningful to be useful. If this is a bit abstract, just think about it, do you think for yourself that the point of life is to be useful, to be able to do things and this usefulness will bring positive change? Or, instead of usefulness, do you think that it is important to find the meaning of life and it is thought that meaning that human potential and positive change will happen?
I find this distinction pretty interesting, because in the personal development literature, a lot of time it is assumed that people want meaning (or happiness). As a person with T in the type, I was always a bit uncomfortable with this. I could never imagine how to get meaning without achieving something. It was about doing something, being 'useful' in this terminology to the world. Which is why I like the books like Deep Work from Cal Newport, because he even says is the book that deep work is something that is going to help become better professionally, and he is not that interested in why this is like that.
Some examples of the people with T in their type are: Lelouch Lamperuge from Code Geass, Greg House from House MD, Spock from Star Trek (2009 version), Yagami Light from Death Note, and Haibara Ai from Detective Conan. Example of people with F in their type are: James Wilson from House MD, Kururugi Suzaku from Code Geass, Toyama Kazuha from Detective Conan, Pain from Naruto, and Steve Rogers from Avengers.
4. J/P: Does a person prefer to take actions (J) or explore options (P)?
Here the question is whenever the person prefers to have a plan and take actions to reach a specific goal, or if they prefer the situations as they come, adapting as they come along. The person that would have a plan and take action first would normally always have a plan for everything. I actually remember asking one of my classmates about this. I assumed that they would not be in a stressful situation often, and they agreed, because they always try to predict in advance what is going to happen and if one thing goes wrong, they know that they have everything else in order. Or a fellow member of my former Toastmasters club. She is really good at taking something that works subpar and make it brilliant. But she said it herself to me, that she does not like it, when other people mess up her order. I really admire these people.
On the other hand, people that like to explore options are much more likely to get in the situations where their plans, if they even have them, go out of the window. But because of this, they are more adaptable, as with each change, they simply see what other options are. Be it the people that, when put in the stressful situation, they quickly see what needs to be done and adapt to the situation. Or people like me, when every new information or change in a situation makes me see other options. So, currently I screwed up something, and I am trying to repair it. But in my mind, I also have a couple of options of what I will do, if it does not work out.
The example of people that would be judgers by this method would be: Lelouch Lamperouge from Code Geass, Kudou Shinichi from Detective Conan, Sheldon from Big Bang Theory, and Aizen from Bleach. The example of people that would be perceivers by this method would be: James T. Kirk from Star Trek (2009 version), Leonard McCoy from Star Trek (2009 version), Akai Shuichi from Detective Conan and Luna from Harry Potter books.
This is another way to quickly type somebody and it is a good way to check if the type is correct or is there something that might need another look. It is also relatively quick, as long as you have a person or material like movie or book in front of you. I here tried to find the examples by comparing it to the memories of these characters, and I sometimes was not sure, but I would be, if I could check the material. But when you can check, it can be quite clear which type they are. Try it on some of your friends and see if it fits. :)