So while I am still not sure about it, I am going to try and write about it, to see if it will help my thinking. This is my putting the advice that writing help with thinking into practice.
So the two dichotomies that they divide themselves to are observation vs. action and specific vs. universal.
Specific vs. universal here means whenever the person concentrates on one person or situation at the time, or are the the group of people and situation and they try to get the patterns from it. On the other hand, information vs. action refers to whenever there are specific people or situation to deal with, or an abstract one. So this one could also be described with different words and not MBTI letters.
The people with IP in their code are mostly concentrating on the specific situation and how theoretical people would react to it. The exploration of the situation is what makes it interesting to them. Whenever is my pathetic attempt in trying to predict people's reaction in a specific situation or my friend's attempt to try and find out how people should react in our current world. Or a person concentrating on one situation at the time, while attempting to enforce some (sometimes misguided) view of how people would react. Not that I think about it, it is mostly connected to the specific situation.
Unlike with the EP, where they are much more likely to first talk about the motivation and their view of particular person, and only when I ask them, they give specific situation to explain it. And even so, it is not the situation that is in the forthrun, but one person that is being discussed at the time. But it the amazing people that they met or somebody that did something unforgivable. They also use multiple situations, and it is like reading the pattern of the motivation in behavior from these situations.
The EJ are much more group oriented. Does the groups work well, do they all feel alright, are they efficient,... these are some of the questions that I have heard the EJ types ask. For them, the situation that they are in is a part of the patterns that the group of people is inside. It is always about how to work as a group, and sometimes, to a person of different scope than they are, it sounded like they want us all to be just a cogs in the machine. But I will admit that when it comes to making sure the group works, they are invaluable.
The last are the IJ. So there are supposed to care about where the world as the whole is going. Be it by asking about the things like the meaning of the dealing of the whole profession or even the nature of the free will, or not the other side, that values are respected and upheld and that we will continue to exist and will not destroy ourselves or our identity. Only from these principles do then they try to apply it to the specific situation. I have to say, that while I admire it, I don't really understand their thinking pattern.
So they are going from most detail-oriented to most pattern/universally oriented, where the IP are concentrating on situation, EP on the people, EJ on the groups and IJ on the world.