We all have and use 8 different personality functions, sensing, intuiting, feeling and thinking, each in the introverted and the extraverted directions. But each of the function brings with it a backpack, which a lot of different stuff packed in it. One of them is their ultimate desire.
The more we use a specific function, the more important is their goal to ourselves. It is in a way like a Maslow's pyramid, where the lower levels have to be met to the satisfactory level, to be able to care about the levels about it.
The same way is with these function. For example, for an ESFJ, they will first care about the Fe goal. When the Fe goal is going to be met, then they will turn to the Si goal and tried to met it as well.
I sometimes wonder if there is a way to meet all eight of them, but some of them seems to be fundamentally opposed. For example, the goal of Ne is the exact opposite of the goal of Ni.
So what are these desires?
Extraverted thinking desires order. They want things to be done in a efficient way and the best way to do it is to find the way that is the most efficient and then repeat it until something more efficient comes this way.
Extraverted thinking desires the truth. They want to question every imaginable assumptions, just to make sure that the final conclusion is true. They will also remember all of the steps that were taken to reach the conclusion.
Extraverted intuition desires possibilities. It lives in the world, where everything can be connected to anything else. They are the explorers, or like the child in the candy shop. Both of them see the world as full of wonder.
Introverted intuition desires direction. It explores the world of future, imagining what the future is going to bring and what to do, so we can actually reach it. They are the great planers.
Extraverted sensing desires experience. It lives in the world where it seeks new experience, let that be sensory, cognitive, physical or something else. They are the great adventurists.
Introverted sensing desire memories. It creates, stores and reviews the vast library of information for the later access. It is like a librarian that knows their way around the newer books, as well as the old manuscripts stored there.
Extraverted feeling desires harmony. It makes sure that the relationships between people, or even between people and other beings and things are in as good shape as possible. They want to make sure there is no rough edges.
Introverted feeling desires self-expression. It wants to show the world their personality, their self. The canvas of life is to be filled with personality of the artist in the best way then know how.
So if we return to the previous example of an ESFJ. These people will first try to make sure that there is harmony in the group. When they managed to achieve that, then they will try and make as many memories as possible. That is why they sometimes stereotype them as a good hosts.
Each type can be analyzed like that. I am an INTP, and I first try to find the truth, which I am sure some people are already sick of my questions. Then I use the mental image of the system that I created this way to try something new, and for most people unexpected.
I know an ENFP, who has the desires of possibilities and self-expression. That person mostly project is in the other people. When met with a new person, they will quickly discover that apparently they have a lot of skills and good ideas. Then she will go and encourage them to be who they really are.
I also know the INTJ, who has the desires of direction and order. I have never seen a person that would calmly talk about their whole industry going under (direction), but at the same time no complain about their job. It seems that he is quite content doing what he does (direction + order). It is eerie for me. Also he is the one that always points us the flaws with my ideas, mostly based on the assumptions of what the end goal is, but mostly connected to inefficient use of time to achieve it (order).
I could pull another examples for my mind, but I do believe that I made my point clear enough. It is the desires of out function that also have an affect on out life. It is better to be aware of them, as we can only control what we are aware of.