The short answer I have is ‘I hope not'. But in the end, what we eat can influence our life and in the end, even kill us. So the real answer would probably be ‘it depends'.
There are many ways food could kill us. There are some that just make us sick. But also, just taking some precautions, it probably won't.
Eating something that is poisonous. That one is obvious. If you eat something poisonous, you can die. But there are still cases of mushrooms poisonings and shells poisonings every year. People are not careful, what they pick to eat (as in case of mushrooms) or do not know how to correctly prepare food (like mussels, a type of shells - if they are open before starting to cook, or closed after cooking, that people shouldn't it them). Even raw potato can sometimes be placed in here (if it is still green).
The second one is also poisonings, but it happens because of bacteria, than type of food. Here I am talking about salmonella poisoning, or E.coli poisoning, that happened from eating unwashed vegetables.
The third one is overeating. The more we overeat, the more mass we bring on ourselves. As we get more and more obese, that means, that our bones and muscles need to be stronger, since there is more work to be done. But neither boons not muscles can get stronger in intensity, and eventually the body can't take it anymore.
Also, the overeating can use too much of the blood resources for digesting, and there might not be enough oxygen for other parts of the body, leaving the other organs, like brain, to die just a bit quicker.
The fourth one are food addictions. It might seem like it is like overeating, but it is not. Food addictions are, when you can't stop eating one type of food, but the other types are not a problem. I had chocolate addiction for some time. I got withdrawal symptoms, if I didn't eat it at least twice a day. There can be different types of food involved here, but if you can't go a couple of days without some specific food, than you are probably addicted to it.
The fifth one in not eating the right food. Our body need different types of nutritions and is using different types of nutrition to digest the food. For example, eating animal proteins gives us all the amino acids, that our body needs, but the body uses calcium to digest it. That means that eating too much meet with no calcium rich plants, like nuts or green leafy vegetables, to lead to too little calcium inside the body. And to digest milk, you need calcium, so it is not a great way to replenish calcium.
There might be other ways, how food could hurt us. But as long as we are eating properly, I don't think we have anything to worry about.